# Left is for errors by notational implementation

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A code snippet from earlier – it’s a little funny since I was talking to dan chao who does a lot of scalaz, but no haskell, and we couldn’t pinpoint exactly why Left is used to pass errors. If we all wrote right-to-left I guess we’d be doing things the other way around.

```
module Sum where
data Sum a b = First a | Second b deriving (Show, Eq)
-- OH! _This_ is why Left is for Errors and Right is for values.
-- By the implementation of typeclasses, operating on the right values while ignoring
-- the left is the natural notation when you write out the instances!
instance Functor (Sum a) where
fmap f (First e) = First e
fmap f (Second b) = Second (f b)
instance Applicative (Sum a) where
pure v = Second v
(First e) <*> _ = First e
_ <*> (First e) = First e
(Second f) <*> (Second b) = Second (f b)
instance Monad (Sum a) where
return = pure
(First e) >>= _ = First e
(Second b) >>= f = f b
```